The team at Spiritual Sounding Board has written on numerous situations of reported spiritual, emotional, and sexual abuse/misconduct by church and ministry leaders. These are typically complex situations that involve investigating theological beliefs, ministry practices, organizational systems, cultural context, and other elements for relevant details and patterns.
We present this Resource Archive to help readers who want to do their own studies into the emerging situation of Ravi Zacharias and Ravi Zacharias International Ministries (RZIM), to develop their own informed conclusions. We seek to provide a range of select links that offer observations, analysis, and interpretations of events and evidences. Along the way, we present our opinions and understandings of relevant issues through the questions we ask and the ways we organize the material in response to questions that readers/commenters here and elsewhere on social media are asking.
Initial edition of December 8, 2017, compiled by brad/futuristguy, with input/review from Julie Anne Smith on link selections, issue analysis, and FAQ answers. Additional questions, links, and notations may be added to expand this post. We will usually note when new material is added, but the nature of this post is to serve as an archive that is updated.
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Lawsuit: Primary Sources
Georgia Northern District Court Case 1:17-cv-02885.
Official Responses to Lawsuit and Other Issues
Organizational Source Documents for Ravi Zacharias International Ministries (RZIM)
ProPublica page for RZIM. The ProPublica “Nonprofit Explorer” page for RZIM includes summary financial information and links to Forms 990, which detail financial and organizational aspects of the corporation. The compensation of officers/staff chart in Form 990, Part VII, lists directors and key employees. This is all public-access information as required by the IRS.
Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA) member profile page for RZIM and Wellspring International.
Denominational Discipline: Primary Sources
Public Statement on Accusations Against Ravi Zacharias: Evidence does not provide basis for formal discipline under the C&MA policy. Press release posted on March 5, 2018, by the denominational leadership of Christian & Missionary Alliance.
Phoenix Preacher: Letter Demands That The C&MA Revisit Ravi Zacharias Scandal, written by Tom Lunal, and posted on Phoenix Preacher blog March 20, 2018. “This letter was sent out to 200 plus Christian and Missionary Alliance pastors after the C&MA decided not to discipline Ravi Zacharias.”
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QUESTIONS, ISSUES, DISCREPANCIES
Resource links that help answer these questions will be posted as they are discovered. To respond to these questions, we are selecting sources that are as concise as possible yet with enough detail to give a reasoned response. In some cases, the questions have complicated answers that need more than one source for readers to decide for themselves.
Did the prior lawsuit the married couple initiated involve extortion, or has that been mischaracterized?
The fact that the couple whose lawyer filed the Demand Letter had been involved in a previous lawsuit against a church has been taken by some social media commenters as “proof” of their being litigious, and thus that the Demand Letter to Mr. Zacharias is frivolous and just an attempt to extort money from him. Such comments rarely refer to any details from that prior case.
So far, this question has been addressed more thoroughly on the following post at The Wartburg Watch, especially in comments by blog co-owner Dee Parsons, along with commenters “sandy c” and Charis. Read this series of links to comments in that thread, and historical sources linked to, and see what you think about whether this was “extortion” or not. And if so, what should be done about that? And if not, is the mention of it by Mr. Zacharias potentially an attempt to “poison the well” or “controversialize” the couple?
Mr. Ravi Zacharias and the Emails/Sex Scandal UPDATED – We suggest you begin in the middle of the comment thread with this particular comment, and follow the chain of comments from there that look at the 2008 court case.
Mr. Zacharias emphasized in his statement to Christianity Today that he had no “fiduciary duty” to the woman in question. Why might that be important to this case?
If a person is in a profession where they have a “fiduciary duty” to others, there may be legal implications if he or she engages in “misconduct.” For instance, many states have laws concerning forms of sexual misconduct between those in a role of authority/power and those in their charge — for instance, teachers and their students, prison officers and prisoners, counselors and clients, clergy members and parishioners. In some cases, “consent” of the subordinate person in the relationship cannot legally be used as a defense by the superior person.
To study the state-by-state laws on professions and consent issues, see the State Law Database from RAINN (Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network). Also, see the details and analysis from Christianity Today writers in their article of December 3, 2017:
Zacharias’s lawsuit stated that “there was no confidential and/or fiduciary relationship” between him and the woman, as would exist between a pastor or counselor and a counselee. Lawyers emphasized that Zacharias is not a pastor or counselor, and that RZIM is not a church and does not provide formal counseling or therapy.
Georgia state law does not specifically address sexual misconduct by clergy, though it does declare it a crime for a practitioner of psychotherapy to use a “counseling relationship to facilitate sexual contact,” even with the consent of the victim.
Issues surrounding fiduciary duty have received increased scrutiny in “survivor blogs” the past five years or so, primarily as more cases come to light of sexual misconduct by pastors, youth ministers, Christian school workers, counselors, etc. So, for a Christian celebrity like Mr. Zacharias to specifically state he had no “fiduciary duty” relationship with the woman in question deserves a deeper look. Though he was not professionally a counselor to her, he appears to have served in a pastoral and/or spiritual director role of care and mentoring. And his profession as a Christian apologist, speaker, and author does give the weight of authority to his interactions. And, according to this comment from “mirele” on a Spiritual Sounding Board post, Mr. Zacharias is a clergy member. What implications does this have for this situation, and why did Mr. Zacharias feel the need to address whether or not he had/has any fiduciary duty here?
RZIM BOARD AND STAFF
How many Zacharias family members serve on the RZIM board of directors, or are employees of the non-profit? How much are they paid?
See the most recent Form 990 available from ProPublica. The compensation of officers/staff chart in found in Form 990, Part VII, which lists directors and key employees. Listed below from the Form 990 2014 are the family members, and their position(s) in the organization. See that chart for reportable compensation (W-2/1099-Misc), and estimated other compensation.
- Ravi Zacharias, Chairman and CEO.
- Margaret Zacharias, Vice Chair of Ministry.
- Sara [Zacharias] Davis (daughter), Director/Executive Director. (Link.)
- Naomi Zacharias, Vice President of Wellspring International (the benevolence division of RZIM).
- It was reported in 2012 that Nathan Zacharias (son) “currently works as senior writer and video producer in the Media Department at RZIM, creating written and visual content for marketing, fundraising, and broadcast. In addition to his work behind the scenes, Nathan is becoming an increasingly visible face of his father’s ministry, spearheading initiatives such as the “Ask” interactive youth apologetics curriculum. […] [H]is wife, Sarah Parker Zacharias, … serves as a marketing and development associate at Wellspring. (Link from 2012 article on Christian Post.) (Link on TWW.)
Is this a truly independent board/ministry if there are multiple Zacharias family members on it?
Among the concerns the IRS has for non-profit corporations are: governance without conflicts of interest caused by family members/friends on the governing board, and inurement — excessive compensation of board members and others. Having family/friends on the board is not automatically a problem, but consider in this situation the potential difficulties — personal and organizational — of Mr. Zacharias needing to inform the board of RZIM about his reported activities and the related Demand Letter.
Where can I get more background information on key requirements for non-profits and their boards? [FAQ added 12-09-2017.]
According to the International Revenue Service, an EO (Exempt Organization) must function “in the public interest” and not run it for the benefit of any private individuals or other organizations. The Compliance Guide for 501(c)(3) Public Charities is probably the best official IRS overview resource addressing the basics of constituting a non-profit, ongoing requirements, record-keeping, governance procedures and practices, and required disclosures and documentation. It’s concise and clearly written, and if you’re involved with an EO, or investigating one, you should read it to make sure you/they don’t put its tax-exempt status in jeopardy.
What we typically think of in America as a “church” or “ministry” is typically constituted as a non-profit religious organization that is exempt from federal income tax. To stay tax-exempt, we have to abide by the rules and regulations for the corporation! And although there are many requirements in terms of forms to file and records to keep, the IRS print materials and websites consistently emphasize three main restrictions for maintaining tax-exempt status. To quote the Compliance Guide:
1. Private Benefit and Inurement. A public charity is prohibited from allowing more than an insubstantial accrual of private benefit to individuals or organizations. This restriction is to ensure that a tax-exempt organization serves a public interest, not a private one. …
No part of an organization’s net earnings may inure to the benefit of an insider. An insider is a person who has a personal or private interest in the activities of the organization such as an officer, director, or a key employee. …
If a public charity provides an economic benefit to any person who is in a position to exercise substantial influence over its affairs (that exceeds the value of any goods or services provided in consideration), the organization has engaged in an excess benefit transaction. [Page 4, emphasis added.]
2. Political Campaign Intervention. Public charities are absolutely prohibited from directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) a candidate for public office. [Page 5.]
3. Legislative Activities. A public charity is not permitted to engage in substantial legislative activity (commonly referred to as lobbying). [Page 8.]
CREDENTIALS AND TITLES
What specific allegations have been posted of Mr. Zacharias and/or RZIM publicizing exaggerated or misleading academic credentials for him?
For details and extended analysis on allegations of misleading credentials, see links from the sections below on Warren Throckmorton’s Blog, and Steve Baughman’s Media.
What are considered appropriate uses of the title of Dr. for those with honorary doctorates?
According to Warren Throckmorton, “In Missouri it is against the law to claim a degree you don’t have but I don’t think it is anywhere else. In other states, it can be if you defraud people of their money by using a false degree but I don’t know if it could stick on Ravi Z with this set of facts.” (Link.)
And are protocols different between such usage in academic versus non-academic environments?
On this Christianity Today Podcast (Episode 85), guest Professor John G. Stackhouse explains from his work in academic circles why it is a significant problem to misrepresent academic expertise and/or experiences through exaggeration, fabrication, or ambiguous references. Ravi Zacharias and the Case of Christian Credential Inflation. “Many evangelists and apologists have a history of overstating their qualifications.” “Ravi Zacharias is the biggest name in apologetics currently,” said Stackhouse. “As he goes, so goes apologetics so it’s really important that he be scrupulous in everything he does.”December 7, 2017.
UPDATING OF BIOGRAPHIES AND TITLES
Given that RZIM was reportedly informed in at least 2015 of questions about misused/misleading credentials in biographies and other references to “Dr.” Zacharias, why were so many online sources not corrected until early December 2017? When were their policies about this title usage put in place?
This post and comment thread from Warren Throckmorton’s blog address this particular problem in detail. (Link.)
Several people have reportedly informed RZIM staff members over the years of their concerns about misleading uses of academic information and experiences. These include: Professor John Stackhouse, about 20 years ago (source podcast). According to Steve Baughman in this comment on a Warren Throckmorton post, “Tom Lunol, a Christian computer programmer now in Colorado, also contacted RZIM around 2005 to express his concern about the bogus Cambridge claim. He got nowhere so he quit” (emphasis added). And Steve Baughman himself reports exposing Mr. Zacharias on this issue in the summer of 2015.
How is it that Mr. Zacharias could present a lengthy commentary statement about the context and other details of the lawsuit settlement, and that not violate the non-disclosure agreement, yet he appeals to the non-disclosure agreement as a reason to not answer a range of other relevant questions?
[Response to be added.]
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LINKS TO NEWS REPORTS AND ANALYSIS
Warren Throckmorton’s Blog
NOTE: Links to Warren Throckmorton’s articles have been changed from the original posts on his (now defunct) Patheos blog to those on wthrockmorton.com. (November 13, 2019)
- Another False Credentials Claim: Ravi Zacharias (UPDATED), November 24, 2017.
- Fact Checking Claims about Ravi Zacharias’ Credentials: Is Dr. Zacharias in the House?, November 27, 2017.
- Was Ravi Zacharias a Visiting Scholar at Cambridge University?, November 28, 2017.
- Fact and Fiction in Ravi Zacharias’ Responses to Allegations of Misconduct, December 3, 2017.
- Ravi Zacharias International Ministries: We Don’t Call Ravi Doctor Except When We Do (UPDATED), December 5, 2017.
- Christianity Today Podcast: John Stackhouse on Ravi Zacharias and Credential Inflation, December 8, 2017. Includes the link to the podcast itself, plus transcripts of an exchange between host Morgan Lee and Professor John Stackhouse.
- Should Recipients of an Honorary Doctorate Use the Prefix Dr?, December 11, 2017. [Link added 12-11-2017.]
- This and That: Ravi Zacharias, Husbands as Holy Spirit, Another Fake Jefferson Quote, Dissociative Identity Disorder, January 02, 2018. [Link added 01-04-2018.]
- In Church of England Report, Oxford University Expressed Concern about Wycliffe Hall’s Connection to Ravi Zacharias, January 04, 2018. [Link added 01-04-2018.]
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Steve Baughman’s Media
- RaviWatch. For a one-paragraph summary of findings to refute each claim by Mr. Zacharias, see the Fishy Claims page (which is the same URL as the RaviWatch homepage). The “More info” links on each claim take you to the related section on the Detailed Documentation page.
- Guest post on Jeffrey Day Lowder’s blog, August 24, 2015: Has Evangelist Ravi Zacharias Misrepresented His Academic Credentials?
- Steve Baughman’s YouTube video channel: here.
- A Brewing Ravi Zacharias Sex Scandal, August 6, 2017.
- The Christian Industrial Complex Shields Its Own, November 13, 2017. See the extensive section of over 50 endnotes for details on Mr. Baughman’s evidence sources.
- Guest post on Spiritual Sounding Board, December 14, 2017. Guest Post: My Dinner With Ravi: An Atheist meets the “Great Apologist of our Time.” [Link added 12-14-2017.]
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The Wartburg Watch Blog
- This TWW article by Dee Parsons from October 2, 2015, reported on the credentials issue.
- *Mr.* Ravi Zacharias Adds Pizzazz to His Bio and the Christian Industrial Complex Imposes the Cone of Silence, by Dee Parsons; November 29, 2017.
- Mr. Ravi Zacharias and the Emails/Sex Scandal UPDATED, by Dee Parsons; December 1, 2017.
- Ravi Zacharias: Why I Don’t Think His Response at Christianity Today Cleared Things Up, by Dee Parsons; December 4, 2017.
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Spiritual Sounding Board Blog
- Important New Video about Apologist Ravi Zacharias: Alleged False Credentials, Lawsuit, Online Relationship with Married Woman; November 26, 2017.
- Ravi Zacharias: Email Threat and Ongoing Lack of Response About Reportedly Inflated Credentials; November 30, 2017.
- Two Posts Containing Ravi Zacharias’ Personal Emails Were Removed: Why? (Updated); December 2, 2017.
- Is Someone Manipulating YouTube Search for Steve Baughman’s Video: “The Case Against Ravi Zacharias?”; December 2, 2017.
- Guest post by Steve Baughman. Guest Post: My Dinner With Ravi: An Atheist meets the “Great Apologist of our Time.” December 14, 2017. [Link added 12-14-2017.]
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Ravi Zacharias Sources
- Ravi Zacharias Amazon Author Page. [Link added 12-01-2017. Note that as of this date, Mr. Zacharias’ author bio still refers to him as Dr. Zacharias.] [Update: The Author Page was still the same on the evening of December 3rd, but a significantly edited and expanded version replaced it by the morning of December 4th.]
- Ravi Zacharias biography from RZIM “About” page. [Link added 12-01-2017. Note that as of this date, the bio states it was “Updated 17 May 2017.”] [Update: The bio was revised as of December 3, 2017.]
- Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA) link: Ravi Zacharias bio for ECFA Board of Reference. [Link added 12-01-2017.] [It appears this bio has not been updated for as much as 7 years, as it mentions Mr. Zacharias being in ministry for 36 years, and his most recent book being one first published in 2010. Note added 12-04-2017.]
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RZIM (Ravi Zacharias International Ministries) Sources
- RZIM – Ravi Zacharias International Ministries.
- Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA) organizational links: RZIM. Wellspring International (“A Benevolence Wing of Ravi Zacharias International Ministries“).
RZIM Non-profit Data. All of the following information is public access information for non-profits. Ravi Zacharias International Ministries is registered as a 501(c)3 non-profit corporation. The Employee Identification Number (EIN) for RZIM is EIN 13-3200719. This is the unique identifier number assigned to RZIM by the IRS. The IRS ruling year for RZIM was 1984, meaning this is the year it was granted non-profit status and donations would be tax-deductible. The NTEE Code for RZIM is (Christian X20) — for a description of what this code includes, see the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities’ Religion-Related Codes page.
- Charity Navigator page for RZIM.
- Guidestar page for RZIM.
- ProPublica page for RZIM. The ProPublica “Nonprofit Explorer” page for RZIM includes summary financial information and links to Forms 990, which detail financial and organizational aspects of the corporation. The compensation of officers/staff chart in Form 990, Part VII, lists directors and key employees.
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Other Sources, News Reports, Analysis, and Opinion Pieces
ITEMS FROM 2017
- MinistryWatch: Ravi Zacharias Faces Criticism for Exaggerated Credentials and Settling a Lawsuit with an Apparent Extortionist.
- The Christian Post: Ravi Zacharias’ Ministry Responds to ‘Egregious Claims’ and ‘Slander’ About His Character, Accomplishments, by Brandon Showalter; November 27, 2017.
- Phoenix Preacher: What To Do With Ravi, by Michael Newnham; December 1, 2017. [Link added 12-12-2017.]
- Christianity Today: Ravi Zacharias Responds to Sexting Allegations, Credentials Critique, by Kate Shellnutt and Sarah Eekhoff Zylstra; December 3, 2017.
- EssentialChurch: Lying and Its Consequences: The Tale of Ravi Zacharias, by EssentialPastor; December 3, 2017. [Link added 12-12-2017.]
- Friendly Atheist: Ravi Zacharias Lied About His Credentials, and It’s All Your Fault, by Hemant Mehtah; December 4, 2017.
- The Christian Post: Ravi Zacharias Denies Accusations of Illicit Online Sexual Relationship, Credential Misrepresentation, by Brandon Showalter; December 4, 2017.
- The Christian Post, Voices: Defender of the Faith Defends His Integrity, by Jim Denison; December 5, 2017. [Link added 12-11-2017.]
- PJ Media: Ravi Zacharias Opens Up About Sexting Allegations, Extortion Lawsuit, by Tyler O’Neil; December 5, 2017. [Link added 12-11-2017.]
- Christianity Today, Podcast Episode 85, with guest Professor John G. Stackhouse. Ravi Zacharias and the Case of Christian Credential Inflation. “Many evangelists and apologists have a history of overstating their qualifications.” December 7, 2017.
- EssentialChurch: The Ravi Zacharias Scandal and Honorary Degrees: Looking Forward, by EssentialPastor; December 11, 2017. [Link added 12-12-2017.]
ITEMS FROM 2018
- C&MA denominational website: Public Statement on Accusations Against Ravi Zacharias: Evidence does not provide basis for formal discipline under the C&MA policy. Press release posted on March 5, 2018, by the denominational leadership of Christian & Missionary Alliance. [Link added 03-20-2018.]
- Relevant: Ravi Zacharias Will Not Be Punished by Denomination for Allegations Over Sexting and False Credentials; March 12, 2018. [Link added 03-13-2018.]
- Twitter thread begun March 12, 2018, on non-disclosure agreements and the disciplinary investigation into Ravi Zacharias by the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and their complaint procedures to seek review of their decision to impose no disciplinary actions. [Link added 03-13-2018.]
- Phoenix Preacher: Letter Demands That The C&MA Revisit Ravi Zacharias Scandal, written by Tom Lunal, and posted on Phoenix Preacher blog March 20, 2018. [Link added 03-20-2018.]